LOINC
Version 2.72

50696-4Influenza virus A neutralizing antibody [Identifier] in Serum by Neutralization testActive

Part Descriptions

LP14239-5   Influenza virus A
Influenza viruses, from the family Orthomyxoviridae, are enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses with segmented genomes containing seven to eight gene segments. Of the five genera in the family, only influenza A virus (IAV), influenza B and C are medically relevant to humans. Aquatic birds harboring avian IAV are the likely natural reservoir for all known IAV subtypes and are probably the original source of all human pandemic IAV strains. IAV maintained in wild birds have been associated with stable host switch events to novel hosts, including most often to domestic poultry but also to horses, swine, toothed whales and humans. The influenza virus life cycle begins with the binding of viral HA to host cell receptors. Endocytosis and HA-mediated fusion of the viral and cellular membranes occurs. Viral ribonucleoprotein complexes are released into the cytoplasm, travel to the nucleus, then are replicated and transcribed by the viral polymerase complex. The new viruses are formed and bud when the newly formed ribonucleicprotein complexes and structural proteins reach the plasma membrane. Further research is needed to better understand how IAVs switch hosts and the viral genetic changes that underlie human adaptation. IAV causes respiratory infections in humans ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Pandemics are attributed to "novel" viruses which possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) to which humans do not have immunity. [PMID:20542248] [PMID:25812763]
Influenza viruses A and B are single-stranded RNA enveloped viruses belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family. The symptoms of infection of Influenza A and B include fever, cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, headache, myalgia and malaise. Some patients may experience gastrointestinal symptoms including watery diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The influenza viruses spread rapidly in enclosed spaces with a documented rate of infection of 70% following a common source of exposure. Infection occurs in the respiratory epithelium in both the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the virus can be found in many specimen types, including nasal aspirates, nasal or nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs, sputum and tracheal aspirates. When infection rates reach epidemic proportions, hospitalization of children and elderly patients rises as does the mortality rates of elderly patients.(Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 11th edition, James H. Jorgensen; Karen C. Carroll; Guido Funke; Michael A Pfaller; Marie Louise Landry; Sandra S. Richter; David W. Warnock) Source: Regenstrief LOINC

LP6416-4   Neut
In LOINC, the Method "Neut" represents the virus neutralization test (VNT), also called conventional VNT, which is a specific laboratory method that is used primarily for identifying whether neutralizing antibodies for the virus of interest are present in the patient sample. The VNT involves incubating patient serum with the virus of interest, and then inoculating onto cell culture. If neutralizing antibodies are present and the virus is neutralized, the cells will not be infected. If neutralizing antibodies are not present, the virus will infect the cells in the cell culture. [PMID:32170698] This method can also be used to identify specific virus serotypes or strains, by performing separate tests in which serum is incubated with each of the specific virus serotypes or strains of interest. [PMID:169804] Source: Regenstrief LOINC

LP207365-0   Ab.Neut
Neutralizing antibodies are antibodies that interfere with the interaction between the virus and its host cell receptor, therefore preventing infectivity. Neutralizing antibodies can be detected using a traditional VNT or other methods such as pseudovirus VNT and surrogate VNT. VNT and pseudovirus VNT use live virus (the actual virus or a recombinant virus that incorporates the viral antigen of interest, respectively) and cell culture to assess the virus-host interaction and whether neutralizing antibodies are present that block that interaction. Surrogate VNT (sVNT) does not use live virus but rather uses purified viral antigen and host cell receptor protein to mimic the same interaction. The sVNT method is currently (2021) represented in LOINC as IA, because it is an immunoassay-based method. Source: Regenstrief LOINC

Fully-Specified Name

Component
Influenza virus A Ab.Neut
Property
Prid
Time
Pt
System
Ser
Scale
Nom
Method
Neut

Additional Names

Short Name
FLUAV NAb Ser Nt
Display Name
FLUAV neut ab Neut test Nom (S)
Consumer Name Alpha
Influenza A (Flu A) neutralizing antibody, Blood

Example Answer List LL957-2

Source: Association of Public Health Laboratories

Answer Code Score Answer ID
Influenza A (N1) LA13541-0
Influenza A (N2) LA13542-8
Unable to determine LA11137-9

Basic Attributes

Class
MICRO
Type
Laboratory
First Released
Version 2.22
Last Updated
Version 2.72
Change Reason
Release 2.72: COMPONENT: Updated "Ab" to "Ab.Neut" since this test is detecting neutralizing antibodies.;
Order vs. Observation
Both

Member of these Groups

LG32757-3 Influenza virus

Language Variants Get Info

zh-CNChinese (China)
流感病毒 A 型 抗体.中和:存在与否或特征标识:时间点:血清:名义型:中和试验
nl-NLDutch (Netherlands)
Influenzavirus A As.neutraliserend:identificator:moment:serum:nominaal:neutralisatietest
fr-FRFrench (France)
Influenza virus A Ac:Identification:Ponctuel:Sérum:Résultat nominal:Neutralisation
de-DEGerman (Germany)
Influenzavirus A Ak:Nachweis oder Identität:Zeitpunkt:Serum:Nominal:Neutralisationstest
it-ITItalian (Italy)
Influenza A, virus Ab.Neut:Prid:Pt:Siero:Nom:Neut
pt-BRPortuguese (Brazil)
Influenza vírus A Ac:Ident:Pt:Soro:Nom:Teste de neutralização
es-MXSpanish (Mexico)
Virus de la influenza A Ab:Presencia o identidad:Punto temporal:Suero:Nominal:Prueba de neutralización
es-ESSpanish (Spain)
Virus Influenza A Anticuerpos antineutrófilos:Presencia o identidad:Punto temporal:Suero:Nom:Prueba de neutralización

LOINC FHIR® API Example - CodeSystem Request Get Info

https://fhir.loinc.org/CodeSystem/$lookup?system=http://loinc.org&code=50696-4