LP221384-3 Zika virus non-structural protein 1
The Zika virus (ZIKV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by infected cells and is involved in immune evasion and pathogenesis. While there is some structural similarity between ZIKV NS1 and NS1 from other flaviviruses, antibodies to ZIKV NS1 have been found to be relatively ZIKV-specific. [PMID:27417494]
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by the Aedes mosquito which was first identified in a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947. Since 2014 it has spread explosively in the Americas where it has infected hundreds of thousands of people. About 80% of those infected are asymptomatic. Common symptoms include fever, headache, rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Since the end of 2015, there has been an increase in ZIKV-associated cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome and a tremendous increase in cases of microcephaly in fetuses and newborns in Brazil, raising worldwide public health concern. Recent predictions are that the mosquito species A. Albopictus, which can hibernate and survive cool temperatures, will carry ZIKV to more temperate areas of North America, Australia and Southern Europe. It is still not clear whether ZIKV in humans increases viral titers enough to trigger a new cycle when an infected person is bitten by a naïve mosquito. Direct human-to-human transmission has been documented to occur perinatally, sexually (primarily through semen), through breastfeeding, blood transfusion and through occupational transmission in the laboratory setting. There are currently no specific anti-viral agents, vaccination or medical prophylaxis available. [PMID:27148186]
ZIKV itself can be detected during the acute phase of infection (4-6 days) using PCR-based methods; alternatively, ZIKV-specific IgM antibodies or a significant titer increase of ZIKV-specific IgG is proof of acute infection. Antibody titers should be performed using serum samples from the acute and convalescent stages with at least 2 weeks between blood draws.
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Source: Regenstrief LOINC, PMID: 27417494