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A citrate is an ionic form of citric acid, such as C3 H5 O(COO)3 3ˆ', that is, citric acid minus three hydrogen ions. Citrates are compounds containing this group, either ionic compounds, the salts, or analogous covalent compounds, esters. An example of a salt is sodium citrate and an ester is trimethyl citrate. Because citric acid is a multifunctional acid, several intermediate ions exist: hydrogen citrate ion, HC6 H5 O7 2ˆ' and dihydrogen citrate ion, H2 C6 H5 O7 ˆ'. These may form salts as well, called acid salts. Salts of the hydrogen citrate ions are weakly acidic, whereas salts of the citrate ion itself (with an inert cation such as sodium ion) are weakly basic. Copyright Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. See for details. Source: Wikipedia, Citrate (Wikipedia)

Citrate testing is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Acid-base balance plays a critical role in citrate excretion. In acidosis, increased citrate utilization occurs and causes reduced citrate excretion. In alkalosis, citrate excretion increases. Hypocitruria promotes the formation of calcium kidney stones because citrate normally binds urinary calcium as a soluble calcium citrate salt. Hypocitruria may also have a role in uric acid stone formation. Citrate excretion is impaired by acidosis, hypokalemia, urinary tract infection, and a high animal protein/high acid-ash content diet. Urine citrate levels may also be decreased with severe muscular activity, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes, and chronic renal failure. Urine citrate levels may be increased with high carbohydrate diet, estrogen therapy, and Vitamin D use. Information from emedicine, "Hypocitraturia," by George Bennett Stackhouse IV, MD, and Medline Plus, accessed 2006 10 25 Source: Regenstrief Institute

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Tag Language Translation
zh-CN Chinese (China) 柠檬酸
Synonyms: 枸橼酸;枸橼酸根;枸橼酸盐;枸橼酸酯;柠檬酸根;柠檬酸盐;柠檬酸酯
fr-CA French (Canada) Citrate
et-EE Estonian (Estonia) Tsitraat
es-ES Spanish (Spain) Citrato
it-IT Italian (Italy) Citrato
tr-TR Turkish (Turkey) Sitrat
ru-RU Russian (Russian Federation) Цитрат
nl-NL Dutch (Netherlands) citraat
fr-BE French (Belgium) Citrate