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Cystine is an oxidized dimeric form of cysteine. It is formed by linking two cysteine residues via a disulfide bond (cys-S-S-cys) between the -SH groups. Cystine was discovered in 1810 but was not recognized as a component of proteins until it was isolated from the horn of a cow in 1899.1 Cystine is found in high concentrations in the cells of the immune system, skeletal and connective tissues, skin, digestive enzymes, and in hair. Hair and skin are 10-14% cystine. Copyright Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. See for details. Source: Wikipedia, Cystine (Wikipedia)

Union of two cysteine molecules Source: Regenstrief Institute

A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine. Source: National Library of Medicine, MeSH 2006

Cystinuria is an inherited amino acid transport problem resulting in large amounts of cystine being excreted in the urine. Cystinuria often causes the formation of staghorn calculi or multiple large, bilateral stones. Urinary tract obstruction, infection, and renal failure are common, especially in men, due to the size and shape of the stones. Recurrence of cystine stones is common following surgical treatment. Therapy includes reducing excretion and increasing solubility of cystine.

Cystine is a hydrophilic amino acid with uncharged polar groups. Cystines' sulfhydryl group is functional in the activity of many enzymes. Increased in cystinuria which is caused by mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes. (Information from ARUP Laboratories 9/14/06) Source: Regenstrief Institute

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Tag Language Translation
zh-CN Chinese (China) 胱氨酸
Synonyms: Cys-Cys;双巯丙氨酸
fr-CA French (Canada) Cystine
et-EE Estonian (Estonia) Tsüstiin
es-ES Spanish (Spain) Cistina
it-IT Italian (Italy) Cistina
tr-TR Turkish (Turkey) Sistin
ru-RU Russian (Russian Federation) Цистин
nl-NL Dutch (Netherlands) cystine
fr-BE French (Belgium) Cystine